Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory

SGO History


  • A permanent research station was operated at Sodankylä during the 1st International Polar Year in 1882-1884.
  • Finnish Academy of Science and Letters established the observatory in 1913.
  • Earth´s magnetic field is measured here since 1914.
  • Seismic measurements started at SGO in 1956.
  • The Ionospheric station started operations in August 1957.
  • In 1971, the Technical Division began their work at SGO.
  • The Astronomy Division was doing polar motion observations using a zenith telescope on routine base between 1973 and 1981.
  • In 1975, the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) was established, and work at SGO started in 1977.
  • In 1978, the EISCAT receiver radar was built at SGO, and the measurements started in 1981.
  • In August 1997 the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory joined the University of Oulu.
  • The observatory of the University of Oulu ( (cosmic rays, seismic network and induction coils) operated by Department of Physical Sciences joined SGO in January 1998.
More about historical information about observations can be found in Data Archive > Availability

More detailed information about the SGO history:
Bösinger, T.: The Geophysical Observatory in Sodankylä, Finland – past and present, Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 12, 115–130,, 2021.

Last modified: 26 February 2020, 08:08:24.

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